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This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Gómez Pedraza and the second or maternal family name is Rodríguez.
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez (22 April 1789 – 14 May 1851) was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
Born into the upper middle class, Gómez Pedraza was a student at the time of the Grito de Dolores (Cry of Independence) from Spain in 1810. He enlisted in the royalist army under General Félix María Calleja del Rey and became a lieutenant. He fought the Mexican insurgents during the War of Independence and contributed to the capture of José María Morelos. He was a deputy from New Spain to the Spanish Parliament (the Cortes Generales) in 1820. In 1821, after the fall of the viceregal government, he joined with Agustín de Iturbide, who became a personal friend. Iturbide made him commander of the Mexico City garrison. During the period of the First Mexican Empire under Iturbide (1821–1823), Gómez was an anti-federalist, but after the fall of Iturbide he converted to federalism.
In 1824, he was governor and military commander of Puebla. In 1825, President Guadalupe Victoria made him minister of war and the navy. He was later minister of internal and external affairs in Victoria's cabinet. He formed a political party with a diverse membership. This became the Partido Moderado (Moderate Party).
Presidency elect and antidemocratic coup
He was a candidate for president of the republic in 1828 in opposition to Vicente Guerrero and actually won the election. However, on 3 December 1828, under military threat (the National Palace had been bombarded) by his adversaries, including Antonio López de Santa Anna, he "renounced" his victory and left the country. The election was annulled, and under the Plan de Perote, Vicente Guerrero assumed the presidency.
He returned to Veracruz in October 1830 from Bordeaux, France, but was immediately sent back into exile by his enemies. He then went to New Orleans, where he published a manifesto against the government of Anastasio Bustamante.
President at last
Gómez Pedraza returned to Mexico on 5 November 1832. The Plan de Zavaleta recognized him as president, and he took office on 24 December 1832 in Puebla. He entered Mexico City on 3 January 1833 accompanied by Santa Anna. One of his first official acts was to enforce a decree of 22 February 1832 that expelled the remaining Spanish citizens from the country.
Soon after being named president, he convoked the Congress, which, however, elected Santa Anna president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice-president. Because of the former's illness, Gómez Farías took office as president, on 1 April 1833, replacing Gómez Pedraza.
In 1841, Gómez Pedraza was named to Santa Anna's cabinet as minister of internal and external affairs. Also in 1841, he was a deputy to the constituent congress, and was detained when that congress was dissolved. As a federal deputy beginning in 1844, he was known for his eloquent orations. That year he spoke in the Senate against the personal dictatorship of Santa Anna.
In 1846, he became a member of the Council of Government, and the following year he returned as minister of relations, when the government was transferred to Querétaro because of the U.S. occupation of Mexico City. He was president of the Mexican Senate during the debate and approval of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended the war (February 1848). His speech to the Senate on 24 May 1848 about the war with the United States has been described as "one of the most brilliant pieces of oratory in the history of the Mexican Parliament."
In 1850, he ran again for president, but was defeated by General Mariano Arista. He was director of the Nacional Monte de Piedad when he died in Mexico City in 1851, refusing the last rites. The clergy did not allow his burial in sacred ground.
- (in Spanish) "Gómez Pedraza, Manuel", Enciclopedia de México, vol. 6. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
- (in Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984.
- (in Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
- ^ García Puron, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2, p. 22.
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